The Undiagnosed Network
"Conditions in society which
are not defined as a problem and for which alternatives are
never proposed, never become policy issues. Government does
nothing and conditions remain the same."
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|ADAM 2008 ANNUAL REPORT ARRESTEE DRUG ABUSE MONITORING PROGRAM II||
ADAM II continues as a critical source of data for estimating trends in drug use in local areas, understanding the relationship between drugs and crime, and describing drug market activity in the adult male arrestee population. Data are collected within 48 hours of the respondent’s arrest in face-to-face interviews in booking facilities during two 14-day periods (two back to back calendar quarters from April 1 to September 30) each year, weighted appropriately to represent the county in which the primary city sits and annualized to reflect the year’s arrests. The program offers a unique advantage over many traditional surveys of drug use through its collection and testing1 of a urine sample from respondents to verify answers about recent drug use.
|Americans Die Younger Than Peers||The shorter life expectancy for Americans largely was attributed to high mortality for men under age 50, from car crashes, accidents and violence. But the report also said U.S. women's gains in life expectancy had been lagging behind other well-off countries|
|Americans dying earlier||The New York Times reported on an alarming new study: researchers have documented that the least educated white Americans are experiencing sharp declines in life expectancy. Between 1990 and 2008, white women without a high school diploma lost a full five years of their lives, while their male counterparts lost three years. Experts say that declines in life expectancy in developed countries are exceedingly rare, and that in the U.S., decreases on this scale “have not been seen in the U.S. since the Spanish influenza epidemic of 1918.”|
|America's Surging Correctional Population||
While the 1 in 100 statistic has seeped into the national consciousness, many Americans remain unaware that a much large number of offenders are not behind bars at all but receive their punishment in the community.
|An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease Charting a New Course to Save Lives and Increase Productivity and Economic Growth||More than half of Americans suffer from one or more chronic diseases. Each year millions of people are diagnosed with chronic disease, and millions more die from their condition. By our calculations, the most common chronic diseases are costing the economy more than $1 trillion annually—and that figure threatens to reach $6 trillion by the middle of the century. Yet much of this cost is avoidable. This failure to contain the containable is undermining prospects for extending health insurance coverage and for coping with the medical costs of an aging population. The rising rate of chronic disease is a crucial but frequently ignored contributor to growth in medical expenditures.|
|California Prisoners & Parolees-2008||
California Prisoners and Parolees, 2008, is a presentation of statistical data about the adult felons, civil narcotic addicts and other populations under the jurisdiction of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR). Statistical data on felons in CDCR have been published since 1950 when the first issue of California Prisoners, covering the years 1945 through 1949, was released. Statistical data on civil narcotic addicts have been published since1967 when the first issue of Summary Statistics, Civil Commitment Program for Narcotic Addicts, covering the years 1961 through 1966, was published. Beginning in 1981, the two were combined into one publication. In 2008, CDCR’s publication Historical Trends was incorporated into this publication. Historical Trends described changes to CDCR’s population over a 20 year time period.
|Characteristics of The California 2000||Statistical Data|
|Characteristics of The California 2002||Statistical Data|
|Children of Incarcerated||
Children whose parents have been arrested and incarcerated face unique difficulties. Many have experienced the trauma of sudden separation from their sole caregiver, and most are vulnerable to feelings of fear, anxiety, anger, sadness, depression and guilt. They may be moved from caretaker to caretaker. The behavioral consequences can be severe, absent positive intervention—emotional withdrawal, failure in school, delinquency and risk of intergenerational incarceration. Yet these children seem to fall through the cracks. Police do not routinely ask at the time of arrest whether their prisoners have children, nor do sentencing judges or correctional agencies regularly raise this question. Since no agency collects data about these children, “…it is unclear how many are affected, who they are, or where they live.
|Costs of Hepatitis C 33% and 67%||
To our knowledge, only one estimate of the annual costs of HCV in the 1990s has appeared in the literature, $0.6 billion. However, that estimate was not supported by an explanation of the methods. Our estimate, which relies on detailed methods, is nearly 10 times the original estimate. Our estimate of $5.46 billion is on a par with the cost of asthma ($5.8 billion
|Emerging Infectious Diseases||Emerging infections are new or newly identified pathogens or syndromes that have been recognized in the past two decades. Reemerging infections are known pathogens or syndromes that are increasing in incidence, expanding into new geographic areas, affecting new populations, or threatening to increase in the near future.|
|Estimated Numbers (in Thousands) of Lifetime Users||Estimated Numbers (in Thousands) of Lifetime Users of Specific Hallucinogens, Inhalants, Needles, and Heroin, by Age Group: 2000 and 2001|
|Experts can't explain why some U.S. women are dying sooner||A new study offers more compelling evidence that life expectancy for some U.S. women is actually falling, a disturbing trend that experts can't explain.|
|Health Care-Texas prison system looming fiscal crisis||
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) operates one of the largest correctional systems in the Western world. The challenge of ensuring that TDCJ prisoners continue to receive constitutionally mandated medical care is becoming increasingly difficult as the number of offenders with mental illness and chronic and infectious diseases continues to grow and treatment standards become more sophisticated and expensive.
|Healthcare in today's prison system||
Prisons in the twenty first century certainly are not proving to be an exception to this because there are various sociopolitical perspectives on incarceration, and, therefore, it has its share of controversy. Nevertheless, regardless of one’s point of view, the health of the nation’s inmates, and the racial composition of prisons, cannot be overlooked or ignored by prison administrators, elected officials, and those who ultimately elect officials and pay the costs, the taxpayer. There is little disputing that the nature and quality of, and extent of access to, health care prior to incarceration have significant effects on health care needs within prisons. The social and economic costs to society cannot be measured easily or overlooked. There is no question that this area of corrections is one of the most important topics facing this country in the early part of this century and millennium.
Incarceration affects more lives than just those of the inmates, and it seems as if no aspect of society escapes its grasp or influence. There are far reaching consequences for those who are imprisoned, and no correctional outcome is as severe, except for capital punishment. Imprisonment affects taxpayers as well as the lives of the families and the communities in which the inmates lived before imprisonment, and in the case of those fortunate enough to experience freedom, communities to which they return
|Health Care for Soon-To-Be-Released Inmates-A Survey of State Prison Systems||
Many State prison systems cannot report detailed, accurate data on the prevalence of medical problems or mental disorders within their inmate populations. It would appear that State systems have not integrated their inmate databases. Administrative databases that contain information on the demographic profile of the inmate population are not “connected” to databases that contain medical data on diagnosed conditions or medication usage from the pharmacy. Concerns regarding confidentiality of inmates’ health conditions undoubtedly contribute to the lack of linkage between these databases.
|Hepatitis C-Unseen, Unplanned, Uncounted, and Uninsured Public Health Crisis||In 2008, 7.3 million adults were in the U.S. correctional system (federal and state prisons, community jails, parole, and probation) which is the combined populations of cities of Chicago, Dallas, San Diego, and Philadelphia together. The Bureau of Justice Statistics in June 2000 reported 31.4% (2.3 million) adults in the correctional system had hepatitis C infected which is equal to the population of Houston, Texas. Assuming 30% of the 2.3 million HCV infected inmates/ex-offender infect 1-3 partners – an additional 6.9 million newly infected HCV individuals – or another 1-3 cities the size of Houston will require complex health care|
|Hepatitis C Virus Infection in San Francisco's HIV-infected Urban Poor||While HCV infection is common, HCV treatment is rare in the HIV-HCV coinfected urban poor. Urban poor, nonwhite individuals are less likely to receive HCV testing and subspecialty referral than their white counterparts. Antibody-negative infection may complicate screening and diagnosis in HIV-infected persons.|
|HIV in Correctional Settings-Implications for Prevention and Treatment Policy||
Since approximately 50 percent of men who have been incarcerated or have passed through the correctional system consider themselves to be in committed heterosexual relationships and intend to return to their partners upon release from custody, as many as 6.5 million women each year will experience the risk of having a partner who has been incarcerated. Given the disproportionate number of low-income men of color in correctional settings, low-income African-American and Latina women are more likely to have intimate sexual or needle-sharing relationships with recently imprisoned men.
|Health, United States, 2009||
Infectious disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The number of new cases of many infectious diseases, such as measles and rubella, has decreased greatly as a result of vaccination and other prevention initiatives. However, incidence rates of some communicable diseases, including chlamydia, have increased. In addition, newly recognized infectious agents have emerged and caused substantial public health concern and investment. These include influenza H1N1, SARS, H5N1 avian influenza, and some particularly virulent or drug-resistant bacterial strains, such as Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Influenza and pneumonia remain major causes of death, particularly among persons 65 years of age and over, and HIV/AIDS continues to spread.
|HEALTH CARE IN THE TEXAS PRISON SYSTEM: A Looming Fiscal Crisis||Over the past three decades, correctional health care in Texas has evolved from a woefully inadequate system characterized by poorly equipped infirmaries staffed primarily by unlicensed medical assistants and inmate aides to a comprehensive managed healthcare system that now serves as a model for other states and correctional organizations. Unfortunately, because of the cost drivers detailed in this report, the TDCJ correctional managed care program has reached a point where current levels of funding are not sufficient to meet the demands of an aging and sicker offender population. Additional funds are clearly needed to ensure that seriously ill offenders continue to receive constitutionally mandated health care.|
|Life expectancy low, but growing in city||Women in large swaths of America are dying younger than they were a generation ago, reversing nearly a century of progress in public health and underscoring the rising toll of smoking and record obesity.|
|Links to other data sources used for this website||
|Litigation behind bars: for prisoners suffering from hepatitis C and other effects of incarceration, the trial lawyer is often their only hope.||Prisoners constitute a substantial and growing portion of the American population. The United States, which has the highest per capita incarceration rate in the world, currently keeps more than 2 million people behind bars.|
|Medical Causes of Death in State Prisons, 2001-2004||
Between 2001 and 2004, State prison authorities nationwide reported a total of 12,129 State prisoner deaths to the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP). Nearly 9 in
10 of these deaths (89%) were attributed to medical conditions. Fewer than 1 in 10 were the result of suicide (6%) and homicide (2%), while alcohol/drug intoxication and accidental injury accounted for another 1% each. A definitive cause could not be determined for 1% of these deaths.
|Mortality rates in Prisons||Before April 2003, information about an inmate's death was public information. Since April 2003 that information is not for public viewing|
|Needle use||IV drug use data|
|North Carolina-Aging Inmate Population 2007||
The major objectives of the Aging Inmate Population Study were:
• To examine the factors that have accelerated the growth in the elderly inmate population;
• To examine the demographics of the elderly inmates;
• To explore avenues taken by other states in addressing the issues of an aging inmate population;
• To analyze the costs of providing care to an aging inmate population;
• To explore possible resources to help the Division in dealing with the aging inmate population;
• To investigate innovative approaches for dealing with health and mental health issues of the aging inmates;
• To recommend possible solutions to the overwhelming expenses of housing and caring for the elderly inmates; and
• To increase Division knowledge regarding the needs of the aging inmate population.
|Number of Deaths 97-07||Statistical Data|
|Prison health care is a public health||
Prison health care is a public health, public safety, and imposes an enormous financial toll on our entire society. Annually over 10 million adult ex-offenders many undiagnosed and untreated to are return to economic and medically distressed communities many undiagnosed and untreated with hypertension, diabetes and communicable diseases - tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis C.
|Recidivism Rates within One and TwoYear-2003||Statistical Data|
|Recidivism Rates within One and TwoYear-2005||Statistical Data|
|Recidivism Rates within One and TwoYear-2006||Statistical Data|
|Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings||
This report presents the first information from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and
Health (NSDUH), an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey is the primary source of information on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years old or older. The survey interviews approximately 67,500 persons each year. Unless otherwise noted, all comparisons in this report described using terms such as "increased," "decreased," or "more than" are statistically significant at the .05 level.
|Some U.S. women dying younger, and no one knows why||A new study offers more compelling evidence that life expectancy for some U.S. women is actually falling, a disturbing trend that experts can't explain|
|SOUTHERN DISCOMFORT: Women Dying Younger in the American South Your life expectancy could be lower than your mother's||Depending on where you live, your life expectancy could be lower than your mom's. Female mortality rates increased in many US counties between 1992-96 and 2002-06, especially in rural areas in the South and West, according to a new study.|
|Specific Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Needle, and Heroin Use||Specific Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Needle, and Heroin Use in Lifetime, by Age Group|
|Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2008-09||
Rates of inmate-on-inmate sexual victimization among prison inmates were higher among females (4.7%) than males (1.9%), higher among whites (3.0%) or multi-racial (4.4%) than among blacks (1.3%), higher among inmates with a college degree (3.4%) than among inmates who had not completed high school (2.0%), and lower among currently married inmates (1.3%) than among inmates who never married or who were widowed, divorced, or separated (2.2%)
|Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States, 2008||Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain a major public health challenge in the United States. CDC estimates that there are approximately 19 million new STD infections each year — almost half of them among young people 15 to 24 years of age.1 The cost of STDs to the U.S. health care system is estimated to be as much as $15.9 billion annually.|
|Study Finds Certain U.S. Women Are Dying Early||Despite nationwide statistics showing a steady increase in life expectancy, some women are dying prematurely in certain United States' counties, a new study reports. The study was published in the journal, Health Affairs and it reaffirmed older studies revealing the same trend of lower life expectancies for a select group of women, the "disadvantaged" white women.|
|Study shows declining life span for some U.S. women||Women have long outlived men, and the latest numbers show the average life span for a baby girl born today is 81, and for a baby boy, it’s 76. But the gap has been narrowing and data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has shown women’s longevity is not growing at the same pace as men’s.|
|This report presents health statistics from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates are presented for selected chronic conditions and mental health characteristics, functional limitations, health status, health behaviors, health care access and utilization, and human immunodeficiency virus testing. Percentages and percent distributions are presented in both age adjusted and unadjusted versions.|
|US Women Dying Younger Than a Generation Ago||What’s very troubling is that the US is falling behind other industrialized nations in life expectancy, with women in 737 US counties dying at younger ages between 1997 and 2007. Says Dr. Christopher Murray, director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, which carried out the research, in the Baltimore Sun: “There are just lots of places where things are getting worse. We’re not keeping up.”|
|WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM THE PORTUGUESE DECRIMINALIZATION OF ILLICIT DRUGS?||
The issue of decriminalizing illicit drugs is hotly debated, but is rarely subject to evidence-based analysis. This paper examines the case of Portugal, a nation that decriminalized the use and possession of all illicit drugs on 1 July 2001. Drawing upon independent evaluations and interviews conducted with 13 key stakeholders in 2007 and 2009, it critically analyses the criminal justice and health impacts against trends from neighbouring Spain and Italy. It concludes that contrary to predictions, the Portuguese decriminalization did not lead to major increases in drug use. Indeed, evidence indicates reductions in problematic use, drug-related harms and criminal justice overcrowding. The article discusses these developments in the context of drug law debates and criminological discussions on late modern governance.
|Why Americans Die Younger Than People In Other Wealthy Countries||Men in the USA have shorter lives than men in 16 developed nations. American women also fall near the bottom of the list, living 5.2 fewer years than Japanese women, who live the longest.|
|Why Americans are dying earlier than their international peers||Despite spending more per person on health care than any other country, Americans are getting sicker and dying younger than our international peers -- a problem persisting across all ages and both genders, according to a new report.|
|Who’s in Prison? The Changing Demographics of Incarceration||
The state prison population has grown three times faster than the general adult population since 1990 and at year-end 2005 stood at 167,698. African Americans have the highest incarceration rates of any group (5,125 per 100,000 adults in the population for men and 346 per 100,000 for women, compared to 1,159 and 62, respectively, for all adults), although Latinos now constitute the largest ethnic group in the prison system, at 38 percent of the total.
The prison population is aging, with adults under age 25 representing a steadily declining share while the number of prisoners in older age groups continues to grow. Currently, the share of prisoners age 50 and older is 11 percent, up from 4 percent in 1990, whereas the share of prisoners under age 25 has declined from 20 percent to 14 percent. This trend bears on the health care problem, as the cost of housing, transporting, and caring for elderly inmates is estimated to be two or three times higher than for other inmates
|Women dying sooner||The downward trend is evident in places in the Deep South, Appalachia, the lower Midwest and in one county in Maine. It is not limited to one race or ethnicity but it is more common in rural and low-income areas.|